Five Ways to Improve the Nissan Frontier

Frontier 1 II

By Tim Esterdahl

We recently spent a week behind the wheel of a 2015 Nissan Frontier PRO-4X, and two things are crystal clear to us: This is an old pickup truck design, and its off-road capability still brings a smile to our face.

But before we get into what the next Frontier needs to improve, we should first say the bones of the existing Nissan Frontier are still pretty good. Admittedly, our test truck was a fully equipped PRO-4X crew cab with the PRO-4X Luxury Package ($2,100) that totaled $36,205 including destination (click here to see the price sheet), but it pleasantly reminded us of what trucks used to be like. It has a lower 1st (higher numerically) gear, which creates lots of low-end torque and had us wondering if we should expect to do a burnout every time we left the driveway. As a result, the driving experience was fun and exciting. Quick throttle response and a tight transmission is different from some of the newer pickups that have all the software settings biased to maximum fuel efficiency with softer driving responses and more fluid six- and eight-speed transmissions.

Nevertheless, here are the top five things (we know it could be much longer) the Nissan Frontier needs to improve to stay competitive.

1. New Transmissions

Yes, the current five-speed automatic transmission is a lot of fun; however, jumping from every full stop gets old pretty quickly. A smarter six- or eight-speed auto computer with a less torque-biased 1st gear is a must.

The downside with a new six-speed transmission could be the loss of better low-end torque that is ideal for off-roading, but we wonder if Nissan could incorporate an Off-Road mode button similar to the Sport mode buttons found in some cars and trucks. This might adjust the steering settings, transmission shift points and gas/brake pedal responsiveness. It would give off-road adventurers the best of both worlds.

Whether Off-Road mode is an option or not, Nissan engineers are likely going to have to find a compromise between the Frontier's strong off-road capability while providing improved ride comfort.


2. Improved Engines

Frontier 6 II

After teasing us with a small Cummins-equipped Nissan Frontier concept, which got a strong response, we're hopeful the next-generation model will have such an engine. This would help keep it competitive with a new diesel-powered Chevrolet Colorado and could force the Toyota Tacoma to offer more than the gas V-6.

While a diesel engine sounds good to some buyers, Nissan also needs to improve the gas engine offerings. Although the all-aluminum 4.0-liter V-6 is plenty powerful, the fuel economy numbers (15/21/17 mpg city/highway/combined for the 4x4 five-speed automatic) are more like full-size V-6 numbers.

3. Upgraded Interior Materials

Another must for a new Nissan Frontier is improved touch-point materials throughout the cabin. Currently the cabin is full of hard plastic not seen in any other Nissan vehicle. While using Infiniti-like materials is probably a stretch, there is plenty of room for improvement. New soft-touch dash materials, Nissan's zero-gravity seats and some luxurylike touches could be great additions.

However, Nissan must keep an eye on the pricing. Our test model, as noted earlier, totaled $36,205. If Nissan substantially increases Frontier pricing, buyers will likely move up to a full-size model since the price comparison and fuel economy will be comparable. Even though midsize truck buyers usually want a smaller, better-handling vehicle, pricing it at or near an equivalent full-size model will not help.

With all that said, the midsize truck market is rapidly changing with more luxury packages being offered. In fact, according to our sources, a Colorado LT or Z71 crew cab (short or long bed) commonly costs $31,000 to $36,000. Whether midsize truck customers will opt for a higher-priced pickup remains to be seen; however, Nissan certainly doesn't have the resources like GM does and will likely not be able to take the risk of offering as many package options.


4. New Off-Road Model

Frontier 3 II

One of the things that make the Nissan Frontier so much fun is the PRO-4X trim with Bilstein shocks, electronic locking differential and 16-inch off-road alloy wheels. While it's a great dealer up-sell over the base model, it could be further set apart like the all-new Toyota Tacoma, which includes two off-road models — the TRD Off-Road and the TRD Sport — as well as the extreme TRD Pro. Nissan would be smart to do the same.

Why build more off-road-oriented models? Simple — midsize truck buyers are normally folks who need a truck but don't want to maneuver a full-size model or they love off-roading. The off-road buyers typically want the smaller size for tighter trails where a full-size model like a Ford Raptor won't fit. Catering to this buyer would help the midsize Frontier stay competitive with Toyota, increase its credibility and create a niche for the product.

5. Unique Exterior Styling

One of the biggest challenges for any midsize and full-size pickup manufacturer is to create enough visual distinction between the models. While the idea of a "little brother" is a good way to lure buyers to a downsized option, creating a completely unique identity is really what marketers strive for. With the new Nissan Titan just around the corner with a sufficiently bold look, the Frontier will also need to create its own eye-catching look.

Another important challenge is to make sure the new truck still shares some of the styling cues of the larger model. Like Toyota just recently did with the trapezoidal grille, Nissan Frontier designers will need to tie in some angles and cues with the Titan.

As our recent romp on a nasty dirt road proved, the current Frontier PRO-4X has fun and excitement at its core, but the big challenge will be keeping the good stuff for the next generation and adding several significant improvements. It's our hope — no matter what Nissan does — that the Frontier won't lose its off-road spirit. photos by Tim Esterdahl


Frontier 4 II



The Frontier is still the truck I would buy if I had to buy a new one right now. With the (even more torquey) 6-spd manual and 4x4 it is perfect for me. BTW, this old, outdated truck still has a wider backseat than the larger mid-size GM twins.

that looks really dated, at least it's only 36K, LOL

no thanks....

I understand soft touch materials for areas that you normally rest on such as an armrest but why the hell are truck reviews complaining about not having soft touch for the dash?

I suppose for minivans with a truck bed such as the highest priced models it makes sense but for any other truck?

Just seems odd that someone wants to rub their hands all over the dashboard day to day like they do in TFL truck reviews. I can say the Florida sun really loves leather dashboards...

Nissan will take the lead in mid sized truck sales by 2020 if, and only if, they offer the cummin's with both manual an auto trans in 2an4 wheel drive, they could even kept the same old body. what the hell it worked for dodge.

ugh! I get so frustrated nobody understands the basic how any business works!
Nissan doesn't care what you don't like!
The only reason Nissan builds trucks is to compete with Toyota!
The Frontier was built to compete with the Tacoma!
It was built with a cost limit so it can be sold for less money than the Tacoma.
Nissan has the ability to build it to the way everybody likes but it would be too expensive nobody would buy it.
Nissan can't afford to take a hit by investing in a new model not knowing if it will sell or not.
Nissan wants a piece of that small truck market share.

I bet the boys at Nissan are sitting back and waiting for a disaster to happen with the Colorado and Tacoma, lets say they have another gas pedal sticking problem, or an failed engine mount makes the engine fall out on the road, then that will be big news and the Frontier will be there to pick up the pieces.
People buy trucks on their gut feelings, their instinct, maybe some people like a truck made the old fashioned way, they are afraid of the new technology , or they buy on price, or they buy one brand cause they hate the other brand.

There are many factors that you don't know about why Nissan builds the Frontier the way they do.
Maybe they don't have the assembly line cap to build a lot of Frontiers.

This could be a repost of the wish list for an updated Tacoma before the Detroit Auto Show.

I don't know what people want exterior wise that could change the segment. It's a truck, a small truck, with a basic profile. Outside of something awe inspiring on the front end (and awe inspiring will almost always bring some hatred as well) what can you possible hope for? The Hilux front end? The Navara?

Like every review out there. You ask fir a car like ride. It's no wonder trucks are so sissyfied now-a-days. See what our halftins have become. Nothing but bragging numbers and a symbolic vehicle.

I do think the next Frontier will be a different vehicle.

I definitely want to see the ISF Cummins in the Navara/Frontier.

It will be a far better vehicle than the current D40. From what I've read it will be a more comfortable and better 4x4.

There is talk that the next Navara will raise the bar a little against the VW Amarok and Ranger/BT50.

If this is the case then it will definitely make the D40 look agricultural.

To maintain a "cheaper" price structure it appears that some aspects of the US vehicles that are similar to what we get use lower quality materials like the interior.

But from what I can see the D40's interior in the US is the same as the Navara here.

The interior of the D23 looks quite nice and I hope it's transferred across the Pacific to the US Frontiers, along with the coil rear suspensions.

Here's an image of the interior we'll be getting in our D23 Navara, I hope you guys get this.

At the bottom of the page the image of the interior is a number of thumbnails. Look at those.

In 2014 Nissan had a team working on study to bring D22 up to current USA safety and emissions standards. The idea is to offer a smaller and less expensive, more basic truck than current Frontier, Tacoma, Colorado, and global Ranger. Emissions is non-issue with the deep powertrain portfolio. Meeting current and near future safety standards with a 1997 design is tremendous challenge. If approved the truck would be assembled in Mexico at Aguascalientes plant. This would also free up needed capacity in Canton.

The updated vehicle, whatever is is, will have the 7 speed transmission. A "less torque-biased 1st gear"? Are you high? It's very easy to calibrate the launch to be smoother w/o changing the ratios. You just make the throttle tip in less aggressive and upshift quickly. Chances are it will also have a VQ35 or VQ37 w/ direct injection. As for a diesel, the business case isn't good. It has to be even worse for the ISF Cummins over an in-house engine. Nissan's own engines are good and would keep more money in-house.

I've read the seven speed auto will be used in the next Navara. We already have the 7 speed in some of our D40s fitted with the 3 litre V6 diesel.

The comment regarding the diesel is a little different though.

The global D23 is slated to have the new Renault designed 2.3 turbo CRD. This engine come with a single turbo or a twin turbo.

I've read the twin turbo engine is very good and from what I can remember it's around 190hp and 343ftlb of torque. One would of assumed this would have been adequate.

But, here in Australia I have heard that due to the differences in our pickup market the 2.3 diesel might be deemed to "small" by the general population.

The only other diesel that I can think of that Nissan has had an involvement in is the ISF 2.8 Cummins.

We already receive this engine in a pickup, called the Foton from China. I haven't read any bad articles regarding shortcomings for the ISF.

It is manufactured in China. I did read on a Chinese site called Sinodiesel that they are expecting around 190-200hp and around 385ftlb of torque from the little Cummins.

The Cummins will also meet the latest and most stringent EPA and EuroVI emissions standards. The US and EU are working together to harmonise emissions standards, so hopefully this will allow more diesel tech into the US.

The US only needs to up its diesel standards to meet the higher standard of EU (and most of the modern worlds) diesel fuel standards.

The lower cetane value for US diesel is making it harder to run lower compression diesel. The lower compression reduces NOx levels, which is a problem for diesel engines.

Mark should know that an engine offers the same torque regardless of which gear ratio it has.

The drivetrain in the current Frontier is fine apart from its lack of a diesel. Without the diesel in the GM midsize it becomes a non issue, but GM thought otherwise.

The Frontier is a terrific truck for its size. Nissan quality!

You pretty much cant meet T2B6 or Euro6 w/o SCR in a vehicle larger than a group C passenger car- thats why The Passat has SCR, while the Jetta doesn't.
Mazda is still supposed to sell the 14:1 compression SkyactiveD here, but it is taking a long time.
The business case for America just isn't there. the option would be expensive, and with the price premium on fuel, there isn't a cost savings. That leaves performance, but diesel doesn't really offer big gains in this segment. Pretty much leaves those who "just want a diesel" and those who benefit from a 550mi tank range. Both are too few to justify the engineering investment. I don't know HOW GM made those numbers work.

"Mark should know that an engine offers the same torque regardless"

Papajim, Note this post was written by Tim Esterdahl, editor of Tundra HQ.

Let me sum it up,

Upgrade everything, carry over nothing!


Then you would have a good truck.

If folks are willing to pay 36K for this "truck" then they will be waiting in lines around the block for a new GM Colorado/Canyon, especially when the diesel comes out! for what will be the same money! You can get one now loaded with better everything for less!

You guys do realize that I really enjoyed the truck. LOL. You act like I hated it or that I am saying it "must" be updated. I'm simply saying it could be better.

And yes, torque is based on engine. I was referring to the gearing and transmission shift points. Read the post closer.



Great post; thanks for bringing us some info on the Frontier. It's a very versatile truck, but clearly in need of some updating to remain competitive with other offerings that are on the horizon. Do you have any inkling whether major changes are afoot for the 2016 model year, or do you suspect we are several years out from new powertrain offerings? Although FE isn't everything, it's so dismal in comparison that it's tough to not overlook it unless its price-point is substantially below comparable offerings. The 4 cyl diesel would be interesting but am not sure if Nissan was just teasing with their survey last year.

Frontier Monkey,

My assumption is Nissan will ride the Titan this year and launch a new Frontier next year. I can't see them waiting much longer. They have a lot of production capacity and now with the Titan out the way, it just seems likely they will do something.

I'm pretty stoked to see what they do.


@BAFO - The US has the toughest clean diesel standards because of the recognized and proven cancer causing and birth defect, properties of diesel tailpipe emissions, with California CARB leading the way. The rest of the world is lagging behind for they're in complete denial after vigorously pushing diesels on to its unknowing citizens, a crime on to itself. They're essentially gassing their own people.

Just bought the 2014 Pro-4X with luxury package listing at $36K for $30.5K or $8K less than comparable Tacoma and happily enjoying the ride.

Just because I interacted with you the other day don't get carried away with your trowling.

Your comment will not solicit a response from me as it, as always is quite inaccurate and absurd.

@Tim, (and others')
Have a look at the link I presented in my previous comment.

That is the next Frontier.

The Navara/Frontier will come in 2 variations. A wide body and a narrow body.

The narrow body has been earmarked for developing nations and the USA. It seems Nissan's goal in the US pickup market is to target a more intermediate market with the not so light half ton Cummins Titan or the very light HD Cummins Titan, however you want to put it.

The Frontier will be a smaller mid sizer. This will placate any who want a mid sizer but not the larger mid sizer, ie, Taco, Colorado, etc.

The narrow body will be very similar in size to the previous D22. The D23 (new Navara/Frontier) is heavily based on the D22 chassis, not the D40 as I have read in some articles.

As for engines in the US I would expect the ISF Cummins to be available considering the work Nissan, Cummins and the EPA have done on this engine.

The ISF 2.8 Cummins was actually powering a Titan. I would also wonder if the new Titan will also be offered with the 2.8 ISF Cummins. The 2.8 ISF in the current Titan was returning around 28mpg highway. This engine with the 5.4 V8 in a lighter Titan would be an interesting combo.

Here are some interesting links.

Next gen Navara chassis and/or Frontier

Next gen rear Navara suspension, coil and leaf. I hope the US will get the coil sprung rearend on the Frontier.

Looking at the 2.3 twin turbo diesel in the next Navara it will have a broad spread of torque. It's peak power is at 3750rpm and it peak torque is between 1500 and 2500rpm. This will make for a very tractable engine with better high end performance.

Some dimensions that will be in the US Frontier.

This pickup, the Renault based on the Navara is why I think we will be getting the Cummins in lieu of the Renault 2.3 diesel. This will provide variation between the two brands. Izuzu and the Holden Colorado are the "same" utes but Izuzu runs a different engine/drivetrain combo. An Izuzu diesel and a Aisin transmission.

Contrary to Tim's comment the US Frontier is already developed and could be on the market right now. But, as always the chicken will not allow the importation of the narrow body Navara/Frontier.

This link shows the narrow body Navara is well under way.


Here's an interesting link regarding the ISF 2.8 Cummins. I think this is a great engine.

The life cycle of this engine is greater than what is expected from any gasoline engine, even V8s.

everybody knows the Frontier has a problem with the transmission cooler ruptures inside the radiator and floods the transmission with anti-freeze and ruins the transmission

If I owned one I would remove it and install an aftermarket separate transmission cooler or own one with a manual transmission

I am always right

It would be good to see Nissan back in the competitive truck market as they were in the 70's and 80's with a top selling compact pickup. The Frontier is a very good and capable truck but it does need an updating especially with the new Colorado/Canyon. I know a couple of guys that own the current Frontier and overall they are very satisfied with them and would buy another Frontier. I would like to see Nissan come out with a less expensive and smaller compact pickup, but I also realize that might not happen. As for diesels they would probably sell well enough but the take rate on gas engines would still be greater.

Big Al,

You make a compelling case for the Navarra coming to the U.S. and Nissan using many of the pieces for a new Frontier including the Cummins engine. I just don't see it, but it is an interesting argument.

Speaking with Nissan and Toyota about their overseas mid-size trucks, neither company takes seriously the notion of bringing it into the U.S. The thinking is the trucks are meant for a different customer and the U.S. buyer wouldn't like the truck. There are several reasons for this including size, ride comfort and available features.

If you recall over the years, there has been several stories on a Toyota Hilux being driven in the U.S. This truck was here, so that U.S. aftermarket companies could take measurements to develop parts. The story was how different this truck was to the Tacoma.

The bottom line is automakers see the overseas and U.S. mid-size truck buyers as being completely different. We may see similarities between the trucks, but Nissan and Toyota don't share our view.


I should add that at the 2014 SEMA Show there was a VW Amarok. It was there to showcase a new bed dividing system from a third-party manufacture. This was the first time I had ever seen one and right away I could tell, in its stock form, U.S. buyers wouldn't buy enough to make the business case work. Let me be clear, VW WOULD sell the Amarok in the U.S. in its current form. I am saying, they wouldn't immediately sell enough of them to make the investment pay off.

Why? Size. The Amarok is taller and narrower than U.S. mid-size trucks. Like BAFO points out there are two sizes in mid-size trucks globally - narrow and wide. VW would have to create a new platform and frame for the Amarok for the U.S. consumer. Also, there would have to alter the suspension for a smoother ride and upgrade the interior materials and features. Whether you like it or not, a smooth ride with a comfortable interior is what sells in the U.S. and this is the current trend trucks have been on for quite some time.


I don't know what has happened to the truck market - it seems everyone wants a pretty truck. It's a truck meant to work. I'm actually OK with hard plastic interior and vinyl floors and seats. I would love a Frontier with the 2.8 Cummin and a manual transmission. The only extra bells and whistles I would want would be A/C, speed control, power mirrors, and a backup camera. Keep it basic and functional, with all the modern safety features, and with a low base price. Those that want a prettier truck can upgrade. Unfortunately, Nissan does not offer speed control and cruise control with their base model. Instead you get unnecessary extras like power windows, cup holders, and a stereo but most people want those extra so I guess it makes sense to include them in the base model. I'm just trying to think of ways to keep the price down and still make it a very functional truck.

@BAFO - You know I bring up a very good point, or you wouldn't be sidestepping. You also know the scientific specifics as much as anyone. So if I'm wrong, bring it...

I don't know.

I do think Toyota's reason is it's bottom line.

As for Nissan, I'd bet (hope) you guys get the 2015 Navara with the coil rear end, I was actually very surprised the new Titan didn't come with coils on rear, like the Patrol pickup has.

The current Frontier will not be competitive, unless it's prices are dropped significantly, like Nissan had to do with the Navara in Australia.

The US could get a lot of these pickups. There's only one thing stopping it, and it isn't the manufacturers.

I would add a 6th area where the Frontier could improve - SAFETY. No small pickup truck has ever aced the IIHS or NHTSA crash tests although the newer Frontier and Tacoma come close. I'm hoping the 2015 Colorado and Canyon will finally break this trend as well as the 2016 Tacoma and Frontier.

You should of stated now small US made pickup has ever aced in safety.

@Big Al from Oz
"But, here in Australia I have heard that due to the differences in our pickup market the 2.3 diesel might be deemed to "small" by the general population"
Reports are Nissan is working on or more the case Renault, on a diesel "closer to 3 litres" That 2.3 lite will struggle, even with a multi speed auto transmission

@Tim Esterdahl
Talking to someone from California on my last European trip, who owned a Tacoma. What he thought was important and what we think is important was vast.
Anyway a lot of new introductions through the year: Updated Ranger; Updated and new body for the Mazda BT 50, Mitsubishi Triton(does not sound impressive),Nissan Navara, and new eagerly awaited Hilux. Isuzu may have something new, the Holden Colorado will have engineering updates.
As I mentioned previously the Koreans, like the Japanese love Vans and have released a competitor for the Sprinter in Europe
IVECO have the new ZF Transmission for the Daily. The 70c version has a 10,300lb payload and is eagerly sort after by Class C builders for it's 15,000lb GVWR and 23,000lb GCVWR

@Robert Ryan,
I read the US tuned 2.8 ISF Cummins will not meet our emission standards. If it did it would be a "detuned" version similar to the Foton Tunland's 2.8 ISF Cummins, which is around 175hp and 320ftlb of torque. The 2.3 twin turbo and even the single turbo 2.3 fair much better in the power and torque department.

It's a pity as I like the US tuned 2.8 Cummins.

I've also read yesterday that a larger capacity of the 2.3 of between 3 to 3.2 litres will be coming. To suit Australia's lust for torque. Ah, the French and their diesels.

In Brisbane we've had a considerable amount of rain in the past several days. I went out driving to Woolies and in 3rd my rearend light up from under 2000rpm when accelerating up the on ramp onto the freeway. That's only 470Nm of torque in a mid sizer.

I bet sooner or later we'll have torque limiters on our utes.

I wonder if it will be a single or twin turbo. The problem is they need a replacement for the 3 litre V6 Renault diesel.

I'm hoping for around 180kw and over 650nm of torque. That's 240hp and near on 500ftlb. That'll pull a few tree stumps out.

An engine like that, with the ride of a Maxima with the coil rearend and a 1.1 tonne payload and a 3.5 tow capacity will make it a very desirable ute. Especially if it's as refined as I've read and it will pull over 30mpg on the highway, the best of all worlds. It will apparently reset the benchmark for our diesel utes even as it stands with the 2.3 twin turbo diesel.

I just hope it isn't like the aluminium F-150, a lot of hype with little to show. This is where the US Colorado Canyon made up. They were relatively quite and didn't hype up the pickup too much.

Ford/Mazda, Holden/Izuzu and VW with the Amarok will need to get to the drawing board. Ford with the Lion V6 diesel, VW with it's 3 litre V6 diesel have alternatives, but expensive ones at that. GM has nothing other than the VM based 2.8 diesel.

Somehow I think Toyota will be left behind. Over the past decade or so Toyota hasn't produced the goods. The Ranger has caught up in the past few years and will overtake Toyota and with the new Navara an revamped Colorado I don't like Toyota's chances.

Toyota is relying of it's decades old "you can't break a Hilux" theory. But talk to the owners of new Hiluxes, they been having quite a few problems of late.

@Tim Esterdahl
A photo of the 70C as a Class C Motorhome two Slideouts, 3 litre Diesel like the Pickups

Papajim, Note this post was written by Tim Esterdahl, editor of Tundra HQ.


Regardless of who actually wrote the erroneous comment about torque, Mark Williams posted it and Mark is the "here" where the buck stops at PUTC.

The statement was in error and the readers were misinformed.

The all new 2016 Nissan NP300 Frontier has already been slated for production in Mexico.!5lSpOmZ9tZCQ/

Expect to see it state-side with production in Canton, MS as early as a 2017MY or 2018MY at the very latest. Nissan USA still needs to work on development/implementing a direct injected V6 (variation of VQ35HR) and all the fancy styling frills US truck buyers expect in their high-end trims.

I have a 2009 frontier LE crew cab I bought new. I love it. I traded in my 2004 silverado crew cab. It has been an excellent truck. I agree it could use some interior upgrades but all in all it's pretty good. It has a great engine, plenty of power, tows well, it's good off road, and sized right for many uses. I will wait until the new frontier arrives so I can test it out before I buy a new taco or other mid size. The honda ridgeline is also something I am anxious to see.

Just crossed 100k on my 2010 Nissan Frontier V6, SE, 4WD, 6 speed manual. To date, I've had less than $400 in unanticipated repairs - $110 for a thermostat, and 250 for passenger side rear axle seal.

Had two Dodges before this - a 2004 1500 and a 2006 2500 diesel. Both front ends fell out at about 50k, the diesel needed a new torque converter at 80 and had already replaced two injectors by 60k.

For my needs the Nissan has been a perfect truck, and is an absolutely BEAST in any adverse weather condition. Just wish I got heated mirrors.

If they ever make that diesel, i'll be the first in line (as long as they offer a manual tranny).

I think there is a certain pent-up demand for a smaller, economical truck. Not everyone needs to haul or tow heavy loads and not everyone wants to spend $30K or more. Kind of like the old Toyotas and early Frontiers. Cheap, ultra-dependable, high mileage, good enough for a Home Depot run or to toss your surfboard in the back, and low enough to easily get stuff in and out of the bed. They would sell a lot of those, I think.

1) transmission a 7 speed with a leap off the line 1st gear and a second gear set up for smoother less fuel consuming start along with the proper programing would be great.
2) Engine should be more civilized smoother with less NVH
3) interior real leather no leatherette this time around.
4)Elockers front and back this time please.
5) better materials and better layout of the dash
coils in back and stiff shocks would be a bonus

Diesel ? no need for a 4cyl diesel from Nissan send in the
Variable Compression Turbo engine it makes 4cyl diesels obsolete.

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